Confluence of disciplines

Confluence of disciplines


Performance management as a discipline contains elements that closely link it to a multitude of other disciplines and organisational capabilities such as Strategic Management, Human Resources Management, Systems Thinking, Enterprise Architecture, Knowledge management and others.


Performance management is used in almost all scientific disciplines, as it is a subset of almost all human activities (Brudan, 2010). To explore these associations and to get a better understanding of the polyvalent nature of performance management it is necessary to analyse the various facets of disciplines interaction in practice.


The confluence of various disciplines with performance management is summarized in the table below:




Confluence with Performance Management

Strategic Management

It is the discipline dealing with developing, implementing and evaluating the strategy within an organisation.


It mainly includes designing the organisation’s mission, vision, objectives, policies, projects, creating a clear correlation and linkage between them.

The confluence of these disciplines appears when managing performance at strategic level.


The strategy evaluation measures the effectiveness of organisational strategy through performance management process.

HR Management


HRM is the domain that manages one of the most valuable organisational assets – its people. Its main processes are: recruitment, retention, workforce and working environment, compensation and benefits, individual productivity, talent development and performance appraisal.

The confluence of these disciplines appears when managing performance at individual level.

According to Becker & Gerhart (1996), Human Resource management and decisions influence the organizational performance through improving efficiency or contribution to revenue value, thus HR contributing directly to the implementation of the operating and strategic objectives of firms.


Systems Thinking

Systems Thinking represents a concept popularised by Peter Senge’s book, “The Fifth Discipline” (1990), which promotes a holistic approach to managing organisations, putting people at the heart of the enterprise and enabling them to contribute.

The confluence of these disciplines appears in the approach towards organisational performance management, as a system or through the command and control / mechanistic thinking.


Enterprise Architecture

EA is the specialization of developing rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, including: enterprise goals, business processes, roles, organizational structures and information.

The confluence of these disciplines appears when performance management is based and structured on clear enterprise architecture as support.

Knowledge Management

KM is the discipline that identifies, creates, distributes and enables insights, experiences and know how within the organisation.

The confluence of these disciplines appears when KM focuses on reaching competitive advantage, organisational objectives and sharing lessons learned.



  • Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. (1996), The impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospects, The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 709-801. 
  • Brudan, A. (2010), Rediscovering performance management: systems, learning and integration, Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 109-123.
  • Senge, P., M. (1990), The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of Learning Organization, Random House, Inc., USA.

Integration : Introduction


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